Christian Leischner 1 , Thomas Helling 1 , Markus Burkard 1,two, and Luigi Marongiu

Christian Leischner 1 , Thomas Helling 1 , Markus Burkard 1,two, and Luigi Marongiu

Christian Leischner 1 , Thomas Helling 1 , Markus Burkard 1,two, and Luigi Marongiu 1, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Division of Nutritional Biochemistry, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany; [email protected] (S.V.); [email protected] (C.L.); thohelling@yahoo (T.H.) Institute of Physiology, Division of Vegetative and Clinical Physiology, University of Tuebingen, 72074 Tuebingen, Germany Correspondence: [email protected] (M.B.); [email protected] (L.M.); Tel.: +49-711-459-23621 (M.B.); +49-711-459-23618 (L.M.)Citation: Venturelli, S.; Leischner, C.; Helling, T.; Burkard, M.; Marongiu, L. Vitamins as you possibly can Cancer Biomarkers: Significance and Limitations. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3914. doi.org/10.3390/nu13113914 Academic Editor: Tyler Barker Received: 21 September 2021 Accepted: 29 October 2021 Published: 1 NovemberAbstract: The Western-style diet, that is typical in created nations and spreading into building countries, is unbalanced in a lot of respects. As an example, micronutrients (vitamins A, B complicated, C, D, E, and K plus iron, zinc, selenium, and iodine) are generally depleted in Western meals (causing what exactly is called `hidden hunger’), whereas some other people (for instance phosphorus) are added beyond the every day allowance. This imbalance in micronutrients can induce cellular damage which will boost the threat of cancer. Interestingly, there is a PI4KIII╬▒ drug massive body of proof suggesting a sturdy correlation amongst XIAP Storage & Stability vitamin intake as well as vitamin blood concentrations together with the occurrence of particular forms of cancer. The direction of association between the concentration of a given vitamin and cancer risk is tumor distinct. The present critique summarized the literature concerning vitamins and cancer risk to assess whether or not these may be utilised as diagnostic or prognostic markers, thus confirming their potential as biomarkers. In spite of numerous studies that highlight the significance of monitoring vitamin blood or tissue concentrations in cancer patients and demonstrate the hyperlink between vitamin intake and cancer risk, there is still an urgent need to have for additional information to assess the effectiveness of vitamins as biomarkers within the context of cancer. Thus, this overview aims to supply a solid basis to support additional studies on this promising subject. Keywords and phrases: vitamin A; vitamin B complex; vitamin C; vitamin D; vitamin E; vitamin K; cancer biomarker; cancer risk1. Introduction The broadened meals availability seasoned by most countries just after the Second Planet War, reflected by a higher energy intake and physique weight in comparison to levels before the war, has fostered an ongoing epidemic of obesity that is certainly a considerable concern for public health worldwide [1,2]. Obesity has turn out to be so widespread that the American Healthcare Association categorized it as a disorder in 2013 [3]. One consequence of this pandemic of food overload is that malnutrition went into oblivion and nutrition-related troubles are now normally overlooked. It really is well-known that the Western diet–which is characterized by higher amounts of fat and protein but low in fibers (present in fruits and vegetables)–is essentially unhealthy since it leads to a larger cancer danger. For instance, Western countries show high prevalence of colorectal cancer [4]. Furthermore, the 4-year survival price in ovarian cancer includes a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.28 (95 self-confidence interval: 1.34.89) in folks on a Western diet program, whereas it is 0.66 (0.43.01) in p

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